The Life of Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks
Explore key moments of Rabbi Sacks’ life and career in more detail.
Who Was Rabbi Sacks?
Widely acclaimed as one of the leading Torah scholars of his generation and an unrivalled ambassador for the Jewish people, Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks zt”l was a giant of his time, indeed of any time. His was a Judaism of inclusivity, openness, authenticity, and depth.
Yet Rabbi Sacks wasn’t just a towering scholar in the Jewish world. His light shone far beyond. His gifts as a thinker, broadcaster, philosopher, religious leader, and public intellectual offered a very rare combination, one that set him apart in Britain and the world.
As both an orator and writer, he had that rare ability of being able to make sense of a confusing world and of communicating the most complex ideas in clear and engaging ways, to a wide-ranging and diverse audience.
The author of 43 books and the recipient of 21 honorary doctorates, together with prestigious awards such as The Templeton Prize, Rabbi Sacks’ perspective was widely respected because it was rooted in his faith and in ethics. He was a moral voice to the world, to many people of different faiths and of none. His life’s work was, in his words, “to bring the world that is closer to the world that ought to be.”
8th March 1948
Jonathan Sacks was born in London (Hebrew date: 27th Adar 5708). His parents were Louis Sacks (d. 1996), a businessman who sold fabric in a small shop in London’s East End, and Louisa “Libby” Frumkin (d. 2010), who worked in her family’s wine business, and as the family grew, Jonathan became an older brother to Brian, Alan, and Eliot. Both parents were active as volunteers in their synagogue. A family of modest means, his parents instilled in him enormous devotion to education, Judaism, and wider society, a blend of secularism and religion that would become the template of his lifelong pursuits.
Jonathan attends Saint Mary’s Primary School in the Finchley area of North London, near the family’s home.
Attends Christ’s College School, Finchley. Although a Christian institution, about half of the students are Jewish, none of the school’s teachers are, so he helps organise and lead morning assemblies for the Jewish students. From age 15 he becomes more and more active in this type of role at school, later crediting it as instrumental in preparing for a life of outreach. The teachers’ respect for and encouragement of his faith also prove influential in his understanding that difference does not have to mean division.
While a student at Cambridge, he embarks on a two-month visit to the United States. This leads to what will be life-changing encounters with Rabbi Joseph Soloveitchik, Dean of the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan, Theological Seminary at Yeshiva University in New York, and the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, who urges him to seek rabbinic ordination. Specifically, Soloveitchik enlightens him to the ability of Judaism to not only withstand the challenges of modern thought but to thrive within that environment. He is also deeply influenced by Schneerson’s emphasis on eagerly sharing the lessons and values of Jewish faith not just with Jews but with all of humanity. He later sums up these encounters as: “The Rebbe challenged me to lead. Rabbi Soloveitchik challenged me to think.”
Marries Elaine Taylor, a radiographer (no longer practicing). They have three children: Joshua, Dina, and Gila.
7th November 2020
Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks (HaRav Ya’akov Zvi ben David Arieh zt’’l) passes away early in the morning, Saturday 7th November 2020 (Shabbat Kodesh 20th MarCheshvan 5781). He is buried on 8th November at Bushey New Cemetery, part of the United Synagogue. There is a global outpouring of grief.
Enters Gonville & Caius College, one of the oldest colleges at the University of Cambridge, and studies for a Philosophy degree focused on Moral Science, a discipline that applies scientific methodology to the understanding of morality.
Awarded 1st Class Honours Degree in Moral Science (Philosophy) from Gonville & Caius College, University of Cambridge. Cambridge also awards him a Rhonda Research Fellowship at Gonville & Caius in Moral Philosophy, studying under Prof. Bernard Williams.
Research in Moral Philosophy under Philippa Foot at New College, University of Oxford.
Appointed Lecturer in Moral Philosophy at Middlesex Polytechnic.
Earns a Masters in Moral Philosophy at New College, University of Oxford.
Appointed Lecturer in Jewish Philosophy at Jews’ College, London (now known as the London School of Jewish Studies), the world’s oldest rabbinical seminary.
Receives Ph.D. in Collective Responsibility from the Philosophy and Theology department of King’s College London.
Visiting Professor of Philosophy at the University of Essex.
Named Visiting Professor of Theology and Religious Studies at King’s College, serving until 2013, as well as Visiting Professor at Hebrew University, Jerusalem, serving until 2004.
Named Visiting Professor at Birkbeck College, University of London.
Receives rabbinic ordination from Jews’ College and Yeshiva Etz Chaim, London.
Appointed Rabbi of Golders Green Synagogue, a Modern Orthodox congregation in North West London.
Appointed to the Chief Rabbi Lord Jakobovits’ Chair in Modern Jewish Thought at Jews’ College.
Appointed Rabbi of the prestigious Marble Arch Synagogue, a modern Orthodox congregation in Central London.
Appointed Principal of Jews’ College, London, serving until 1990. In this position he develops a “practical rabbinics” programme, focusing on supporting rabbis in their pastoral work in the community.
Named Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth, the sixth Chief Rabbi since the role was formalized in 1845, and the tenth since the office was created in 1704. He follows in the footsteps of Lord (Immanuel) Jakobovits.
In response to the widely held and, to him, deeply dismaying notion that the Anglo-Jewish community was in a state of decline, he issues a call for a “Decade of Renewal” aimed at revitalising “British Jewry’s great powers of creativity.” He outlines five central values: love of every Jew, love of learning, love of God, a profound contribution to British society and an unequivocal attachment to Israel.
During the next ten years, he establishes and helps nurture a bold set of initiatives to foster this renewal, including the Jewish Association for Business Ethics, which so successfully flourished that it eventually became an independent organization. Another initiative, Women’s Review, tackled controversial issues such as the role of women in prayer (tefillah), divorce (agunah), and lay leadership and education.
He also founds Jewish Continuity, an educational foundation focused on maintaining and enriching the Jewish identity. It employs modern marketing tactics to build awareness of the implications of assimilation and out-marriage, that is, a marriage between a Jew and a non-Jew. Controversy over the appropriateness of the foundation’s funding of non-orthodox religious activities was largely resolved when Jewish Continuity merged with the Jewish Israel Appeal to create the United Jewish Israel Appeal.
Named President of the Council of Christians and Jews and President of the London School of Jewish Studies.
Begins his second decade as Chief Rabbi by calling for “Jewish responsibility,” a renewed commitment to the ethical dimension of Judaism. The new decade finds his public outreach gaining an ever-widening audience, including publishing at least one book every year, regularly contributing to the BBC Radio 4 “Thought for the Day,” a reflection on issues of faith, and writing the Credo column in The Times, with thoughts and advice on a broad field of Jewish values and law, including the Torah, that offers readers guideposts in wrestling with the difficult choices of the modern world.
Begins his commentary, Covenant & Conversation, on the weekly Torah reading. He calls these studies Covenant & Conversation because this, for Rabbi Sacks, is the essence of what Torah learning is: the text of Torah is the Jewish people’s covenant with God, and the interpretation of this text is their ongoing conversation with the Divine word that continues to this day. Its current circulation of almost 40,000 subscribers is augmented through printouts commonly distributed in synagogues and schools around the world.
24th June 2013
At a gala dinner held in advance of the completion of his time as Chief Rabbi, Sacks is honoured by the presence of HRH The Prince of Wales as guest of honour, together with video messages from UK Prime Minister Rt Hon David Cameron MP and the three previous Prime Ministers (Gordon Brown, Tony Blair and Sir John Major), The Most Reverend and Rt Hon Justin Welby, the Archbishop of Canterbury and the two previous Archbishops of Canterbury (Lord Williams, Lord Carey), and The Most Reverend Vincent Nichols, the Archbishop of Westminster, among others. At the dinner, HRH The Prince of Wales says: “As a valued adviser, your guidance on any given issue has never failed to be of practical value and deeply grounded in the kind of wisdom that is increasingly hard to come by…. Your counsel reminds me of that of Solomon. ‘Those who trust in him will understand truth, and the faithful will abide with him in love.’”
1st September 2013
Steps down as Chief Rabbi, succeeded by Rabbi Ephraim Mirvis.
Upon stepping down as Chief Rabbi, he is appointed Professor of Judaic Thought at New York University; Professor of Jewish Thought at Yeshiva University, New York; and Professor of Law, Ethics and the Bible at King’s College, London.
Rabbi Sacks continues to publish a number of internationally acclaimed books (see Publications) and remains a moral voice within the media in Britain, Israel, America, and around the world (see Selected Major Lectures).
In recognition of his work, he is the recipient of several significant and international prizes, including the prestigious Templeton Prize in 2016.
Rabbi Sacks continues to be a respected and in-demand thinker and speaker on a global stage and delivers many lectures and speeches at influential venues such as the TED Conference, the Vatican, the European Parliament, within Israel, and in a number of American universities.
He continues to broadcast prominently on the BBC, including delivering the ‘Thought for the Day’ and, in 2018, fronting a major BBC Radio 4 series entitled “Morality in the Twenty-First Century”. The series receives a positive reception and is shortlisted for the 2019 Sandford St Martin Awards, the UK’s most prestigious broadcast awards for radio, TV and online programmes that reflect religious, spiritual or ethical themes.
A prolific user of online platforms to communicate his messages, he regularly delivers powerful content to a global audience, including a series of whiteboard animations on Jewish identity, antisemitism, anti-Zionism, the politics of hope and other important cultural and societal topics.
He launches a Family Edition of Covenant & Conversation that is made available weekly to act as an educational resource and accompaniment to the main commentary essay. This is then further expanding with a Family Edition series created for all the Jewish festivals, entitled Ceremony & Celebration.
His first book, Tradition in an Untraditional Age, is published. It explores a wide range of studies on modern thought, including the Holocaust, Jewish-Christian dialogue, and Jewish economic ethics, and offers a distinct outlook for Jewish thought in the modern era.
Arguments for the Sake of Heaven published.
The Persistence of Faith, based on the 1990 BBC Reith Lectures is published.
Crisis and Covenant: Jewish Thought after the Holocaust published.
One People?: Tradition, Modernity and Jewish Unity published.
Will We Have Jewish Grandchildren? published.
Faith in the Future published.
Community of Faith published.
The Politics of Hope published.
Celebrating Life: Finding Happiness in Unexpected Places published.
A Letter in the Scroll published. It is awarded a 2000 National Jewish Book Award (USA).
The Dignity of Difference: How to Avoid the Clash of Civilizations published. It is awarded the Grawemeyer Prize for Religion (USA) in 2004.
The Jonathan Sacks Haggadah, a fresh and insightful take on the text for the Passover Seder, published.
From Optimism to Hope published.
To Heal a Fractured World published.
The Authorised Daily Prayer Book published. It becomes the leading prayer book for Jewish communities in the UK.
The Home We Build Together published.
Covenant and Conversation: Genesis: The Book of Beginnings published. It receives a 2009 National Jewish Book Award (USA).
Future Tense published.
The Koren Sacks Siddur published, the first in a series using texts designed by master typographer Eliyahu Koren. It becomes a leading prayer book for Jewish communities worldwide.
Covenant and Conversation: Exodus: The Book of Redemption published.
The Koren Sacks Rosh Hashanah Mahzor published. For the UK, this represents the first time in a century that a new set of Mahzorim (festival prayer books) has been published. The book is a Finalist at the National Jewish Book Awards
The Koren Sacks Yom Kippur Mahzor published.
The Koren Sacks Pesach Mahzor published. It receives a 2014 National Jewish Book Award (USA).
Covenant and Conversation: Leviticus: The Book of Holiness published.
Not in God’s Name: Confronting Religious Violence published. It becomes a top-ten Sunday Times bestseller, is widely praised in the UK, USA, and worldwide, and receives a 2015 National Jewish Book Award (USA).
The Koren Sacks Shavuot Mahzor published.
The Koren Sacks Succot Mahzor published.
Covenant and Conversation: Numbers: The Wilderness Years published.
Covenant and Conversation: Deuteronomy: Renewal of the Sinai Covenant published.
Morality: Restoring the Common Good in Divided Times published.
Studies in Spirituality: A Weekly Reading of the Jewish Bible published posthumously.
The Power of Ideas, a collection of speeches and broadcasts, collated in his memory and published posthumously.
I Believe: A Weekly Reading of the Jewish Bible published posthumously
Music for the Jewish Soul (CD)
A Little Book of Big Questions
Ten Days, Ten Ways: Paths to the Divine Presence
Music for the Jewish Soul 2: High Holy Days (CD)
Israel – Home of Hope (CD)
Letter to the Next Generation: Reflections on Yom Kippur
Letters to the Next Generation 2: Reflections on Jewish Life
A Judaism Engaged with the World
Awarded an Honorary Doctorate from Middlesex University (UK).
Given an Honorary Fellowship of King’s College, London (UK).
Given an Honorary Fellowship of Gonville & Caius College, University of Cambridge (UK).
Awarded an Honorary Doctorate of from the University of Cambridge (UK).
Awarded an Honorary Doctorate from Haifa University (Israel).
Awarded an Honorary Doctorate from Yeshiva University (USA).
Awarded an Honorary Doctorate from Liverpool University (UK).
Awarded an Honorary Doctorate from St Andrew’s University (UK).
The Archbishop of Canterbury, the Rt. Hon. Rev. George Carey, awards him an honorary Doctor of Divinity degree at Lambeth Palace to mark his first ten years in office, only the second time such an honour is bestowed upon a Jewish leader.
Awarded an Honorary Doctorate from Glasgow University (UK).
Made an Honorary Bencher of Inner Temple (UK).
Awarded an Honorary Doctorate from Leeds Metropolitan University (UK).
Awarded an Honorary Doctorate from Bar Ilan University (Israel).
Awarded an Honorary Doctor of Divinity degree from Heythrop College (UK).
Awarded an Honorary Doctorate from Roehampton University (UK).
Awarded an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Basel (Switzerland).
Awarded an Honorary Doctor of Laws degree from the University of Aberdeen (UK).
Awarded an Honorary Doctorate from Ben Gurion University (Israel).
Awarded Honorary Doctor of Letters from the University of Salford (UK).
Awarded Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from Liverpool Hope University (UK).
Awarded an Honorary Doctorate from Tel Aviv University (Israel) for being “an influential moral thinker and a proponent of interfaith dialogue.”
Awarded an Honorary Doctorate from The Technion – Israel Institute of Technology (Israel) in recognition of his “profound dedication to the State of Israel and the Jewish people” and a “lifetime contribution to enriching Jewish identity [as] one of the world’s foremost Jewish thinkers and philosophers.”
It is announced that he will receive an Honorary Doctorate from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel) in recognition of his “personal achievement including in academia, social justice, humanity, solving global challenges, the Jewish people and the State of Israel” but this is delayed due to the pandemic. Rabbi Sacks lived to hear the news of this honour.
Awarded an Honorary Doctor of Divinity degree posthumously from Yale University in recognition of “his wise and steadfast moral leadership.”
Posthumously awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophiae Honoris Causa from Hebrew University. This is his 21st honorary doctorate, and the second that he has been awarded posthumously.
- Awarded The Jerusalem Prize in recognition of his contributions to diaspora Jewish life.
- Made a Freeman of the London Borough of Barnet (UK).
- Made Knight Bachelor in the Queen’s Birthday Honours “for services to the Community and to Interfaith Relations.”
- Made a Freeman of the City of London (UK).
- Awarded a Life Peerage in the House of Lords where he sits on the cross benches, seats occupied by members who have no political-party affiliation, as Baron Sacks of Aldgate in the City of London.
- Awarded the inaugural Norman Lamm Prize from Yeshiva University (USA)
- Awarded The Abraham Kuyper Prize, Princeton Theological Seminary (USA).
- Awarded The Ladislaus Laszt Ecumenical and Social Concern Award from Ben Gurion University (Israel).
- Awarded The Keter Torah Award from The Open University (Israel).
- Awarded The Sandford St Martin Trustees’ Personal Award for advocacy of Judaism and religion in general (UK).
- Awarded the Canterbury Medal for work in support of religious liberty from The Becket Fund for Religious Liberty (USA).
- Awarded the Katz Prize for contribution to the practical analysis and application of Jewish law in modern life (Israel).
- Awarded The Guardian of Zion Award for contribution to Diaspora Jewish life (Israel).
- Awarded the Rambam Award for the cultivation of a meaning and ethical Judaism (Israel).
- Awarded Templeton Prize at a ceremony in London for his “exceptional contribution to affirming life’s spiritual dimension, whether through insight, discovery, or practical works.”
- Awarded the Bradley Prize in Washington DC for his intellectual contribution to American public life (USA).
- Awarded the 2017 AEI’s Irving Kristol Award for “notable intellectual or practical contributions to improved public policy and social welfare”.
- Awarded the Beacon of Light Award from StandWithUs in recognition of his advocacy for Israel and the Jewish people (UK).
- Receives a Lifetime Achievement Award at The Jewish News’ ‘Night of Heroes’ in recognition of his contribution to the global Jewish community and British society (UK).
- Received the Bridge Award from The Council of Christians and Jews in recognition of his leading role in fostering interfaith dialogue in Britain (UK).
- Given a Posthumous Lifetime Achievement Award by the Genesis Prize Foundation, presented by President Isaac Herzog, and accepted by Lady Sacks.
Delivers the Sherman Lecture to the University of Manchester’s Comparative Religion Department, examining post-Holocaust Jewish thought.
Delivers the BBC Reith Lectures, a radio lecture series commissioned and presented each year by a leading public figure, on “The Persistence of Faith,” vigorously challenging the view that religious faith in Europe was in a state of terminal decline.
Delivers installation address as Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth on a “Decade of Renewal”.
Delivers the Warburton Lecture at Lincoln’s Inn.
Delivers the Cook Lectures at the Universities of Oxford, St. Andrews and Edinburgh on “Political Society, Civil Society” and “Language of Morals”.
Delivers the St George’s Lecture at Windsor Castle on “The Good Society” in the presence of HRH Prince Phillip.
Delivers the Mais Lecture on “Markets, Governments and Virtues”.
Addresses the Millennium World Peace Summit of Religious Leaders at the United Nations in New York on the theme of “Forgiveness and Reconciliation”.
Delivers the Samuel Gee Lecture at the Royal College of Physicians on “Ethical issues at the start of life”.
Delivers a series of six Faith Lectures which explored a range of issues such as the nature of faith, confronting evil, creation, Messianic Judaism, the concept of a Chosen People, and Torah from Heaven.
Gives evidence to the Inter-Parliamentary Committee Against Antisemitism (part of the Foreign Office in the UK).
Delivers the Kenan Institute for Ethics’ distinguished lecture on “The Dignity of Difference” (USA).
Addresses a plenary session of the Lambeth Conference on the topic “Faith and Fate,” the first rabbi so honoured.
Delivered The Gifford Lecture at the University of Edinburgh on the topic of “Why Does Faith Survive?”.
Addressed the European Parliament on the rising levels of antisemitism across Europe.
Delivered the Nexus Institute Lecture on the subject of “The Echoes of Tragedy” (Holland).
Delivers remarks at the World Economic Forum ass part of a meeting with global religious leaders.
Delivers the Annual Theos Lecture on the subject of “Religion in Twenty-First Century Britain”.
Delivers the keynote welcome address on the occasion of the visit of Pope Benedict XVI to Great Britain.
Participates in an Interfaith Summit on Happiness alongside the Dalai Lama at Emory University (USA).
Delivers a lecture series on “Difference and Democracy in the Post-Secular World” for the Institute of Advanced Studies in Culture, University of Virginia (USA).
Delivers the Invocation Prayer in the U.S. Senate.
Delivers keynote remarks at the President’s Conference entitled “Facing Tomorrow” in Israel.
Delivers the inaugural Pope Benedict XVI lecture at St Mary’s University College, Twickenham.
Delivers the Ebor Lecture on “Biblical Insights into the Good Society” in York (UK).
Delivers the keynote address at the International Conference of Lubavitch-Chabad Shluchim, New York.
Delivers a keynote address entitled “Has Europe Lost Its Soul?” at the Gregorian University, Rome.
Delivers a series of lectures for Humanitas entitled “Making Space: A Jewish Theology of the Other” at the University of Oxford.
Delivers a keynote address entitled “Religion and Science” at Princeton University (USA).
Delivers the Robbins Collection Lecture in Jewish Law and Thought entitled “The Future of Judaism” at Berkeley Law at the University of California (USA).
Delivers address entitled “The 21st Century Challenge for Jews and Israel” at Tel Hai College (Israel).
Delivers address entitled “Trust and Trustworthiness” at The Woolf Institute at the University of .Cambridge.
Delivers a keynote address entitled “The Will to Life” at the American Israel Public
Affairs Committee Policy (AIPAC) Conference in Washington D.C. (USA).
Delivers a keynote address at the Jewish community’s ‘Closer to Israel’ rally in Trafalgar Square, London (UK).
Delivers an address on “A Judaism Engaged with the World” at The Great Synagogue, Jerusalem (Israel).
Delivers an address entitled “Religion and the Common Good” at The Agora Institute for Civic Virtue and the Common Good, part of the Templeton Honors College at Eastern University, Pennsylvania (USA).
Delivers a keynote address at the Jewish Federation of North America’s General Assembly on “Vision- Driven Leadership in the 21st Century” in Jerusalem
Delivers the Erasmus Lecture entitled “On Creative Minorities” for First Things in New York (USA).
Delivers a keynote address at an International Colloquium on ‘The Complementarity of Man and Woman’ convened by The Vatican under the auspices of Pope Francis (Vatican).
Addresses the Jewish Federations of North America’s General Assembly in Washington D.C. (USA).
Delivers a keynote lecture on ‘Confronting Violence in the Name of God’ jointly hosted by King’s College London and New York University London (UK).
Delivers a keynote address at the National Library of Israel on “The Home of the Book for the People of the Book” in Jerusalem (Israel).
Delivers the inaugural lecture at King’s College London on “The Relevance of the Bible to Law and Ethics in Society Today” (UK).
Delivers a keynote address “In Defence of Religious Liberty” upon receiving The Canterbury Medal from The Becket Fund for Religious Liberty in New York (USA).
Delivers a keynote address at The American Jewish Committee’s Global Forum on “The State of the Jewish World” in Washington D.C. (USA).
Delivers the Eugene McDermott Lectures entitled “The Future of Faith: The Judeo-Christian Ethic in the 21st Century” and “To Heal a Fractured World: The Challenge to Faith in the 21st Century” at the University of Dallas (USA).
Delivers the inaugural Fritzi Weitzmann Owens Memorial Lecture entitled “Dignifying Difference: The Next Generation of Multifaith Leadership” at the Of Many Institute for Multifaith Leadership at New York University (USA).
Addresses members and alumni of The Marshall Society at Yale University to mark their 60th anniversary in New Haven, Connecticut (USA).
Delivers The Hildesheimer Lecture entitled “ Violence and Law: Ancient and Contemporary Reflections” to Humboldt University School of Law in Berlin (Germany).
Delivers a keynote address at the 9/11 Memorial Museum in New York on religious extremism (USA).
Delivers a keynote address to the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, Washington D.C. (USA).
Delivers a keynote address on religious extremism at St Andrews University, Scotland (UK).
Delivers a keynote address entitled “Not in God’s Name” at Cornell University, New York (USA).
Delivers the Templeton Prize Lecture on “The Danger of Outsourcing Morality” upon receiving the Templeton Prize (UK).
Addresses the European Parliament on the issue of rising levels of antisemitism in Europe (Brussells).
Delivers a keynote address at the U.S. State Department on confronting religious violence (USA).
Delivers keynote speech on “The Moral Achievement of a Free Society” upon receiving the Bradley Prize, Washington D.C. (USA).
Delivers a TED Talk entitled “Facing the Future without Fear” at TED 2017 in Vancouver. He is the first Rabbi to speak from the main TED Conference stage. The talk is viewed over 2 million times and is named by Chris Anderson, Head of TED, as one of his top ten talks of 2017.
Delivers keynote address on “The Jewish Algorithm” at the International Olami Summit in London (UK).
Delivers a keynote address on “The Contemporary Task of Judaism” at Bar Ilan University (Israel).
Delivers a keynote address entitled “Exploring Belief” at the BBC Religion and Media Festival (UK).
Delivers a Talmud Talk keynote address at the launch of the Koren Talmud: Noé Edition on “Is our Most Famous Prayer a Prayer?” (UK).
Delivers keynote address on morality at a salon for The Beggruen Institute (USA).
Delivers a keynote address at Legatum Institute on “Restoring the Common Good in Divided Times” (UK).
Delivers address on “Judaism in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities” in Los Angeles (USA).
Delivers a keynote address on “How to Lead a Good Life in Divided Times” for the How To Academy (UK).